Cardiac arrhythmias


Abnormality of cardiac rhythm is cardiac arrhythmia

1-bradycardia means heart rate less than 60 beats per minute

2- Tachycardia means heart rate more than 100 beats per minute.




It may be sinus bradycardia or pathological bradycardia


Sinus bradycardia


Heart rate is 60 beats per minute and is usually asymptomatic .it causes include hypothermia, hypothyroidism, B-Blockers and digitalis, increased intracranial pressure, degeneration and fibrosis of atrium and sinus node.


Pathological bradycardia


It may be due to sinus node disease and atrioventricular block or atrioventricular conduction disturbance




No treatment in asymptomatic cases. In sinus bradycardia atropine or beta one agonist is indicated.



It may be sinus tachycardia or pathological tachycardia.


Sinus tachycardia

Heart rate is more than 100 beats per minute is sinus rhythm can be caused by fever, exercise, emotions, pregnancy, anemia, thyrotoxicosis, and increased catecholamine.


Pathological tachycardia

It may be supraventricular tachycardia, junctional tachycardia, and

ventricular tachycardia.


A) Supraventricular tachycardia


It may be

Atrial ectopic beat

Atrial tachycardia

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation


b) Junctional tachycardia


There are two variants


Intra AV nodal re entry tachycardia

Atrioventricular tachycardia


c) Ventricular tachycardia


Ventricular premature beat

Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular fibrillation

Torsades de point




Anti arrhythmic agents

Pacemaker implantation

Surgery may be required to clip up the focus of arrhythmia